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However, it does not appear to be a species of concern in much of its range and is a good source of food for ducks, as well as important in cycling detritus. Common Names: alligator weed, burhead sedge, capim-de-capivara, Cuban bulrush Synonyms: Oxycaryum cubense Poepp. It is extremely easy to identify by observing its rapid and erratic movements. Paratrechina longicornis is highly adaptable to various environments and can be a major pest. It occurs in large numbers in homes or outdoors and is capable of displacing other ants and possibly other invertebrates.

Paratrechina longicornis forages over long distances away from its nest, making the nest hard to find and the ants difficult to control. Common Names: crazy ant , hairy ant , higenaga-ameiro-ari , long-horned ant, slender crazy ant Synonyms: Formica gracilescens Nylander , Formica longicornis Latreille , Formica vagans Jerdon , Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky , Paratrechina longicornis Latreille , Prenolepis Nylanderia longicornis Emery , Prenolepis longicornis Roger , Tapinoma gracilescens F.

Smith 7. Believed to be native to southern Africa, it is now found throughout the temperate and tropical zones of the world. It is a serious threat to biodiversity through the displacement of native invertebrate fauna and is a pest of agriculture as it harvests seeds and harbours phytophagous insects that reduce crop productivity.

Invasion Biology Introduced Species Summary Project - Columbia University

Pheidole megacephala are also known to chew on irrigation and telephone cabling as well as electrical wires. Common Names: big-headed ant, brown house-ant, coastal brown-ant, Grosskopfameise, lion ant Synonyms: Atta testacea Smith , Formica edax Forskal , Formica megacephala Fabricius , Myrmica laevigata F. Smith, Pheidole laevigata Mayr 8. Phellinus noxius fungus Root and crown rot caused by Phellinus noxius is pantropical in distribution. Also known as brown root rot disease, it is present in native forests but most often noticed in disturbed areas.

It has a broad host range and causes major losses in timber and hardwood plantations, agroforests and landscapes. The fungus forms an infection centre and spreads from tree to tree by root contact. It can exist on decaying roots in the soil for more than 10 years. Common Names: brown root rot, limu mea Synonyms: Fomes noxius Corner, 9.

Urochloa maxima is a native of tropical Africa where it occurs from sea level to 1,m. It is used as a forage grass and its ability to tolerate a wide range of habitats make it a very productive species. Urochloa maxima has become prevalent in Samoa and Tonga and it is a problem species in Guam and Hawaii. Although it is a favourable grass in many areas it can also form dense stands and displace native species.

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White, Panicum maximum var. Webster Native Species 1. It forms dense but localised infestations and competes with, and smothers, indigenous plant species. Common Names: balloon vine, blaasklimop, heart seed, intandela, kopupu takaviri Synonyms: Cardiospermum barbicule , Cardiospermum hirsutum 2. It is also known by its basionym Cenchrus ciliaris. Buffel grass has been widely introduced in the dry tropics and subtropics as a pasture grass, for erosion control and revegetation of arid areas.

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The characteristics of buffel grass which make it suitable for erosion control are rapid germination, high propogation and establishment rates on poor and infertile soils. Buffel grass's dominance and resistance to fire, drought and heavy grazing on arid soils make it a suitable arid zone pasture grass.

In Australia, the south-western United States and Mexico where it has been introduced as a pasture grass and for erosion control Buffel grass often forms extensive dense monocultures excluding native species and promoting intense and frequent fires. It is widely distributed and is resilient to a number of harsh environmental conditions. It changes plant communities by encouraging and carrying wildfires through communities that are not adapted to fire. It burns readily and recovers quickly after fire. Buffel grass has a robust root system; its swollen stem base accumulates carbohydrate reserves, so the loss of leaf surface area after a fire or drought is not fatal to the plant and allows regrowth in favourable conditions.

It has spread to many Pacific islands and thrives in tropical climates. Common Names: dipw rais, feathery pennisetum, mechen katu, missiongrass, o tamata, pwokso, queue de chat, thin napier grass, West Indian pennisetum Synonyms: Cenchrus setosus Sw. Link , Pennisetum flavescens J. Presl , Pennisetum gabonense Franch. Brunken , Pennisetum polystachion L. Brunken , Pennisetum purpurascens Kunth , Pennisetum reversum Hack. Potential migration from Periyar Lake to upstream Periyar Tiger Reserve could place the following IUCN Vulnerable endemic fish at risk: the Periyar stone sucker Garra periyarensis , the Periyar blotched loach Nemacheilus menoni and the Periyar reticulated loach Nemacheilus periyarensis.

These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife. Though not commonly reported to invade natural areas, this rapidly reproducing plant is considered one of the most troublesome weeds for 25 crops in 29 different countries.

This large, highly fecund, omnivorous rodent poses a threat to native ecological communities in this area. It is also a vector of a number of diseases that affect humans, and is likely to be an agricultural pest if it reaches mainland Florida. Common Names: African giant pouched rat, African giant rat, bush rat, Gambian giant pouched rat, Gambian pouch rat, Gambian rat, giant rat, Northern giant pouched rat, pouched rat, rabbit Synonyms: Cricetomys ansorgei Thomas, Despite some medicinal and agricultural uses, D.

Erythrocebus patas mammal Erythrocebus patas is a medium sized terrestrial monkey, native to sub-saharan Africa. Wild populations only rarely come into contact with humans. Their shy behaviour, low densities, cryptic pelage, and large home ranges make it hard to observe them in many parts of their natural range. In some parts of their native range, mainly in west Africa, E.

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The patas monkey is internationally a popular laboratory animal, used for biomedical and behavioural research. Between individuals have gradually migrated from the Islands to mainland Puerto Rico and formed free ranging population groups. They are reported to forage in gardens, destroy crops and disturb traffic. The Puerto Rican Department of Natural Resources traps and kills, or translocates individuals in an attempt to control their population.

It feeds mainly on grass seeds and is commonly found in open long grass plains and close to human habitation. Common Names: avadavat, common waxbill, red-cheeked waxbill, waxbill However, it is now widespread throughout southern North America, South and Central America since its introduction, thought to have first occurred via slave ships during the European colonisation of Africa. It is an agressive species and has been known to displace and eat native geckos.

Common Names: Afroamerican house gecko, Afro-American house gecko, common woodslave, cosmopolitan house gecko, geco-casero tropical, hausgecko, house gecko, tropical house gecko, wood slave Synonyms: Gecko aculeatus Spix 16, Gecko cruciger Spix , Gecko mabuia Cuvier 54 nomen substitutum pro Gecko mabouia , Gecko tuberculosus Raddi syn. Also known as capitaine, mputa or sangara, it can grow up to kg and two metres in length.

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It was introduced to Lake Victoria in where it has contributed to the extinction of more than endemic fish species through predation and competition for food. Common Names: chengu, mbuta, nijlbaars, nilabborre, Nilbarsch, nile perch, perca di nilo, perche du nil, persico del nilo, sangara, Victoria perch, victoriabaars, victoriabarsch Synonyms: Lates albertianus Worthington, , Lates niloticus rudolfianus Worthington, , Lates niloticus var. A cosmopolitan weed it is adapted to dry conditions. It is reported to be spreading rapidly in disturbed areas on Grand Cayman.

Common Names: achicoria azul, bitter lettuce Synonyms: Lactuca intybacea Jacq. Oreochromis niloticus' effective mouthbrooding reproductive strategy allows it to increase in numbers at a rate which, not only crowds native species, but pollutes and unbalances the water column.

How to stop invasive underwater species - The Economist

Oreochromis niloticus is a frequently farmed aquatic species, due to its relative ease of culture and rapid reproduction rates. Most infestations are a result of aquaculture. It grows in moist, often sandy soils and its rhizomes often extend several feet out into the water. Identification: A bright green algae with feathery branches that vary in length from cm. Current Distribution: Original locations, with hybrid form having spread throughout much of the Mediterranean Sea.

Also found in the Adriatic Sea , the Southeastern coast of California although perhaps completely eradicated there now , and the Southeastern coast of Australia. They were trying to identify a hearty breed of seaweed that could be used commercially in saltwater aquariums that was also very attractive to the eye with a form and color that would make a beautiful backdrop for exotic fish.

After having been exposed to tank chemicals and ultraviolet lights over the course of several years, it is believed that, unbeknownst to the staff at the time, these abiotic stressors created the current mutant form of Caulerpa taxifolia. Samples were sent to various institutions, including the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco , where it was probably leaked into the environment.

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A marine biologist, Alexandre Meinsz , first discovered it under the windows of that Museum when it was first found in the sea as a small patch of about a square meter. It spread to cover more than 2. It can thrive in even heavily polluted waters and appears able to colonize most habitats and adapt to any milieu. It has been found in habitats that are nutrient-poor such as sandy bottoms, rocky outcroppings and mud. It has been observed at depths up to meters.

Although patches are less dense at such depths, it seems to grow to the underwater limits of vegetation. It can survive in a variety of temperatures, from tropical to temperate waters. It contains a toxin that is not harmful to humans but may be lethal to certain species of fish and invertebrates and may interfere with the eggs of some marine organisms. The plant appears unpalatable to general herbivores, and seems to grow unrestrained and develop into a dense, uniform carpet that blankets an area and persists from year to year.