Of course, M. The interest in the Byzantine novels, and in Byzantine literature on the whole, will most probably continue to grow. Many of the texts are--contrary to their reputation as simple in both language, structure, and plot--complex and sometimes linguistically difficult texts, which demand a lot on the part of the reader.
Appropriate tools are needed: editions, commentaries, and translations. It is nice to see Hysmine and Hysminias appear in a modern edition.
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It is, however, rather disappointing that it appears without commentary or translation, and--above all--with such a prejudiced and antiquated preface, and an apparatus fontium which to a new reader may give a false impression both of the text itself and of the current research situation. Theodoros Prodromos' Rhodanthe and Dosikles was edited by M. Conca Amsterdam The fragments of Konstantinos Manasses' Aristandros and Kallithea appeared in two editions in the same year, by E.
Tsolakis Thessalonike and O. Mazal Vienna Recensuit Isidorus Hilberg. Vienna Il romanzo bizantino del XII secolo. A cura di F. Turin On the mss of HH , see A. On the ms E Cod. Baroccianus , see also N. This was argued already in the s by M.
See now also I. Nilsson, Erotic Pathos, Rhetorical Pleasure. For a survey of the different datings of HH , see Nilsson , In fact, an article on precisely this aspect of the novel, i. Hunger's proposed biography identifies the author of HH with an imperial dignitary by the name Eumathios Makrembolites, and it has been assumed that this person--if he is indeed the author--wrote the novel at a young age while he was still a notary, ca. Firstly, M. Secondly, M.
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Cataldi Palau , There are numerous examples, but see e. Traditionally, square brackets are in such cases considered unnecessary, or even wrong. There are a number of examples, of which one appears in the above example n. Since minor variations that appear in Hilberg are quite often included in the apparatus, the reader is led to expect all variations to appear.
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That is however not the case, since references to Hilberg's text are often left out, e. Also, Hilberg's apparatus Hilberg , implies variants of the mss, which are not mentioned by M. Another example may be found on p. Yet another puzzling case is the omission of Hilberg's reading on p. To judge from M. This may, of course, be a mistake of Hilberg's, but it would have been appropriate for M. These kinds of inconsistencies all contribute to the reader's sense of insecurity and confusion. Plepelits, Eustathios Makrembolites: Hysmine und Hysminias.
A final remark on the general appearance of the edition: the text does not contain many misprints I have found only four in all.
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I will mention here just one thing that may save the reader some pondering: in the critical apparatus on p. Plepelits , , See also 7. I am less convinced by 2. Plepelits , My previous comments on this question Nilsson , , n. He is my fellow countryman, my cousin, my alter ego ", and Hysmine answers "I have attended on him, and mixed wine for him with this hand". Now, why would this conversation take place if Kratisthenes was indeed the person who served the wine in Eurykomis 5.
It is also likely that Makrembolites would have enjoyed the pun that the similar names Kratisthenes and Kallisthenes form, both in analogy with other names in the novel Sosthenes-Sostratos and as a hint at Leukippe and Kleitophon. An attempt to improve a passage by means of addition is also made in It seems, then, that the solution of previous editors was more reasonable, since the text is comprehensible as it reads in a number of mss.
In my view, this is not convincing, nor does it solve the problems of the passage. The question here is not whether the addition makes the text better, but how one can explain its absence from all the mss provided that one is indeed trying to establish the original text. Nilsson , ; cf. Such a choice seems to be made in line with M. In See e. Hilberg and Conca.
Note also 9. Again, one wishes for a commentary. It is likely that the late mss have a corrected form in accordance with Euripides, and that the older mss represent the original text. There is also Hercher's conjecture from Homer in 3. There is no reason to suspect that the text originally had the dative; why would someone then change it into the accusative? Not all quotations are, however, corrected, see e. A related matter is M.
We must ask ourselves if this really is necessary. A person in early adulthood at the accession of Elizabeth in would, by her death in , have been vouchsafed an unusually disillusioning insight into the duty owed by private conscience to the needs of the state. The Tudor church hierarchy was an instrument of social and political control, yet the mid-century controversies over the faith had already wrecked any easy confidence in the authority of doctrines and forms and had taught people to inquire carefully into the rationale of their own beliefs as John Donne does in his third satire [ c.
Nor was the Calvinist orthodoxy that cradled most English writers comforting, for it told them that they were corrupt, unfree, unable to earn their own salvations, and subject to heavenly judgments that were arbitrary and absolute. Calvinism deeply affects the world of the Jacobean tragedies, whose heroes are not masters of their fates but victims of divine purposes that are terrifying yet inscrutable.
The third complicating factor was the race to catch up with Continental developments in arts and philosophy. The Tudors needed to create a class of educated diplomats, statesmen, and officials and to dignify their court by making it a fount of cultural as well as political patronage.
The new learning, widely disseminated through the Erasmian after the humanist Desiderius Erasmus educational programs of such men as John Colet and Sir Thomas Elyot , proposed to use a systematic schooling in Latin authors and some Greek to encourage in the social elites a flexibility of mind and civilized serviceableness that would allow enlightened princely government to walk hand in hand with responsible scholarship. Humanism fostered an intimate familiarity with the classics that was a powerful incentive for the creation of an English literature of answerable dignity.
The Rise of the Vernacular
It fostered as well a practical, secular piety that left its impress everywhere on Elizabethan writing. The Prince , written in , was unavailable in English until , but as early as the s Gabriel Harvey , a friend of the poet Edmund Spenser , can be found enthusiastically hailing its author as the apostle of modern pragmatism. So the literary revival occurred in a society rife with tensions, uncertainties, and competing versions of order and authority, religion and status, sex and the self. The Elizabethan settlement was a compromise; the Tudor pretense that the people of England were unified in belief disguised the actual fragmentation of the old consensus under the strain of change.
It was still possible for Elizabeth to hold these divergent tendencies together in a single, heterogeneous culture , but under her successors they would eventually fly apart. The philosophers speaking for the new century would be Francis Bacon, who argued for the gradual advancement of science through patient accumulation of experiments, and the skeptic Michel de Montaigne his Essays translated from the French by John Florio  , who denied that it was possible to formulate any general principles of knowledge.
Cutting across all of these was the persistence of popular habits of thought and expression. Both humanism and Puritanism set themselves against vulgar ignorance and folk tradition, but, fortunately, neither could remain aloof for long from the robustness of popular taste. The language, too, was undergoing a rapid expansion that all classes contributed to and benefited from, sophisticated literature borrowing without shame the idioms of colloquial speech.
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