A further weakening of the dualism is indicated when, in the systems of the Valentinian school, the fall of Sophia takes place within the godhead, and Sophia, inflamed with love, plunges into the Bythos, the highest divinity, and when the attempt is thus made genetically to derive the lower world from the sufferings and passions of fallen divinity. They also exhibit a variation from the characteristic dualism of Gnosticism into monism, in their conception of the fall of Sophia and their derivation of matter from the passions of the fallen Sophia.
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Now and then the old passions broke out: in September an absurd attempt to assassinate President Diaz was made by a countryman named Arroyo, but discontent with Diaz's rule was apparently confined to a small minority. Happiness in this world consists proximately in virtue as a harmony between the three parts, rational, spirited and appetitive, of our souls, and ultimately in living according to the form of the good; but there is a far higher happiness, when the immortal soul, divesting itself of body and passions and senses, rises from earth to heaven and contemplates pure forms by pure reason.
Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
At first he adopted the somewhat ascetic views of his master about soul and body, and about goods of body and estate; but before Plato's death he had rejected the hypothesis of forms, formal numbers and the form of the good identified with the one, by which Plato tried to explain moral phenomena; while his studies and teaching on rhetoric and poetry soon began to make him take a more tolerant view than Plato did of men's passions.
According to him, the good is activity of soul in accordance with virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions bodily and external goods of fortune; and virtue is a mean state of the passions. I, 1 a ; rhetoric, since its artificial evidences involve characters, passions and reasoning, is called a kind of offshoot of dialectic and morals, and a copy of dialectic, because neither is a science of anything definite, but both faculties SvvItyas of providing arguments i.
Comedy is representation of men inferior in being ludicrous: epic is like tragedy a representation of superior men, but by means of narrative and unlimited in time: tragedy is a representation of an action superior and complete, in a day if possible, by means of action, and accomplishing by pity and fear the purgation of such passions Poetics, b On the 16th of May, after sessions in which the Senate repeatedly reversed the rulings of the chief justice as to the admission of evidence, in which the president's counsel showed that their case was excellently prepared and the prosecuting counsel appealed in general to political passions rather than to judicial impartiality, the eleventh article was voted on and impeachment failed by a single vote 35 to 19; 7 republicans and 12 democrats voting " Not guilty " of the necessary two-thirds.
The passions excited during the stormy epoch of the Reform Bill had long passed away. It is in its essence, and it is a main condition of its success, to kindle into fierce exercise among great masses of men the destructive and combative passions - passions as fierce and as malevolent as that with which the hound hunts the fox to its death or the tiger springs upon its prey. By this desertion his self-esteem, one of his strongest passions , though curiously united with singular sincerity and humility, was doubtless hurt to the quick; but the wound inflicted was of a deeper and deadlier kind, for it confirmed him finally in his despair of the world's gradual amelioration, and established his tendency towards supernaturalism.
No doubt this last of the bogatuirs possessed the violent passions as well as the wide views of his prototypes. In support of this view, he said that bodies are not substances, though substantiata; that their apparent motion and resistance are results of the passions of their monads; that their primary matter is nothing but passive power of their monads; that the series of efficient causes between them is merely phenomenal.
It was because they did not succeed that necessity and the violence of human passions subsequently forced him into a course of action which he had not chosen and which led him further than he wished to go.
It was very early noticed that the good and evil passions by their continual exercise stamp their impress on the face, and that each particular passion has its own expression. His statement of the latter doctrine so aroused the alarm of certain clergymen of the Church of Scotland that he found it necessary to withdraw what was regarded as a serious error, and to attribute man's delusive sense of freedom, not to an innate conviction implanted by God, but to the influence of the passions. He did so, and then governed like an evil-disposed boy - indulging the merest animal passions , listening to a small camarilla of low-born favourites, changing his ministers every three months, and acting on the impulse of whims which were sometimes mere buffoonery, but were at times lubricous, or ferocious.
Of these the dissertation on the passions is a very subtle piece of psychology, containing the essence of the second book of the Treatise. To sum up, it may be said that Hume enunciated the principle that " everything in the world is purchased by labour, and our passions are the only causes of labour "; and further, that, in analysing the complex phenomena of commerce, he is superior sometimes to Adam Smith in that he never forgets that the ultimate causes of economic change are the " customs and manners " of the people, and that the solution of problems is to be sought in the elementary factors of industry.
The humours and passions and diseases of different nations are different, and the physician must go among the nations if he will be master of his art; the more he knows of other nations, the better he will understand his own. What were then called reports were rather appeals to the passions ; in Saint-Just's hands they furnished the occasion for a display of fanatical daring, of gloomy eloquence, and of undoubted genius; and - with the shadow of Robespierre behind him - they served their turn.
The third council of Carthage in forbade anything but Holy Scripture to be read in church; this rule has been adhered to so far as the liturgical epistle and gospel, and occasional additional lessons in the Roman missal are concerned, but in the divine office, on feasts when nine lessons are read at matins, only the first three lessons are taken from Holy Scripture, the next three being taken from the sermons of ecclesiastical writers, and the last three from expositions of the day's gospel; but sometimes the lives or Passions of the saints, or of some particular saints, were substituted for any or all of these breviary lessons.
The rebellion put an end to the growing reconciliation between Roman Catholics and Protestants; religious passions were now violently inflamed, and the Orangemen and Catholics divided the island into two hostile factions. He would then single out Man from the realm of nature, and, in a treatise De homine, show what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation and knowledge, as also of the affections and passions thence resulting, whereby man came into relation with man.
The unpublished treatise of contained all or nearly all that he had to tell concerning human nature, but was written before the terrible events of the last years had disclosed how men might still be urged by their anti-social passions back into the abyss of anarchy. The State, it now seemed to Hobbes, might be regarded as a great artificial man or monster Leviathan , composed of men, with a life that might be traced from its generation through human reason under pressure of human needs to its dissolution through civil strife proceeding from human passions.
His Discours sur les passions , de l'amour, a striking and characteristic piece, not very long since discovered and printed, has also been assigned to this period, and has been supposed to indicate a hopeless passion for Charlotte de Roannez, the duke's sister. Had he done so, the strong anti-German passions of the Czechs and Poles, always inclined to an alliance with France, would have been aroused, and no government could have maintained the alliance.
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Like anti-Semites elsewhere, the Christian Socialists were reckless and irresponsible, appealing directly to the passions and prejudices of the most ignorant. Stesichorus indeed made a new departure by using lyric poetry to celebrate gods and heroes rather than human feelings and passions ; this is what Quintilian Instit. But the main factor in evolutionary process was undoubtedly the formation of hs, which brought gods of independent origin into relation ii one another, and thus imbued them with human passions virtues. For a while the Gauls withheld their hands out of awe and reverence, but the ruder passions soon prevailed.
Had Henry been honourable and gentle, had his sister not shared his vehement passions , James and Henry, nephew and uncle, might have been united in peace; and the Scottish Reformation might have harmoniously blended with that of England. Laws as to patronage, an inflammatory question, were made, abolished and remade, causing, from about onwards, passions which exploded in the great Disruption of The Four Intoxications are the mental intoxication arising respectively from 1 Bodily passions , 2 Becoming, 3 Delusion, 4 Ignorance.
Without doubt many of their gods are deified men; but it is clear that some are the forces of Nature personified, while others appear to represent human passions which have become identified with particular persons who have an existence in their historical myths. His poetry deals, it is true, with the human passions , but the emotion is always seen as in a picture; he is more concerned with the attitude of the group than with the realization of a character. He fought with unremitting energy for his client during both the first and second revisions of the trial, in and , a task attended with considerable danger, as political passions were so strongly excited at the time that Labori was shot at and wounded at Rennes on the eve of his cross-examination of the witnesses for the prosecution.
From his father, whose stern, somewhat pedantic nature repelled warmer feelings on the part of the children, Goethe inherited that "holy earnestness" and stability of character which brought him unscathed through temptations and passions , and held the balance to his all too powerful imagination.
He was not an agreeable companion, violent in his passions , nervous, restless, and in old age extremely irascible. The sentiments and passions which his eloquence aroused were, however, watchfully utilized by a more extreme party. In the manner of modern travellers, he gives an account of the customs, government and antiquities of the country he is supposed to have visited; a copious introduction supplies whatever may be wanting in respect to historical details; whilst various dissertations on the music of the Greeks, on the literature of the Athenians, and on the economy, pursuits, ruling passions , manners and customs of the surrounding states supply ample information on the subjects of which they treat.
In fact, virtue which he defined as "every performance by which man, contrary to the impulse of nature, should endeavour the benefit of others, or the conquest of his own passions , out of a rational ambition of being good" is actually detrimental to the state in its commercial and intellectual progress, for it is the vices i. Typhon: a Burlesque Poem ; Aesop Dress'd, or a Collection of Fables writ in Familiar Verse ; The Planter's Charity ; The Virgin Unmasked , , , , a work in which the coarser side of his nature is prominent; Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions , , admired by Johnson Mandeville here protests against merely speculative therapeutics, and advances fanciful theories of his own about animal spirits in connexion with "stomachic ferment": he shows a knowledge of Locke's methods, and an admiration for Sydenham ; Free Thoughts on Religion ; A Conference about Whoring ; An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions at Tyburn ; The Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of Christianity in War Seneca had seen from the first that the real danger with Nero lay in the savage vehemence of his passions , and he made it his chief aim to stave off by every means in his power the dreaded outbreak.
But Seneca's fear lest Nero's sleeping passions should once be roused were fully verified, and he seems to have seen all along where the danger lay, namely in Agrippina's imperious temper and insatiable love of power.
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Interest is confined to the actions, passions , sufferings and joys of human life, to its pathetic, tragic, humorous and sentimental incidents. Beneath the surface of brilliant social culture lurked gross appetites and savage passions , unrestrained by medieval piety, untutored by modern experience. Manifold errors also result from the weakness of the senses, which affords scope for mere conjecture; from the influence exercised over the understanding by the will and passions ; from the restless desire of the mind to penetrate to the ultimate principles of things; and from the belief that " man is the measure of the universe," whereas, in truth, the world is received by us in a distorted and erroneous manner.
It is also to be noted that he is here definitely opposing religion to magic, which he holds to be based on the implicit assumption " that the course of nature is determined, not by the passions or caprice of personal beings, but by the operation of immutable laws acting mechanically. More and. In Sweden, however, both the Vestgotar and the Upland Sviar were discontented, the former on account of the breaking of the king's promise to Olaf of Norway and the latter on account of the introduction of the new religion, and their passions were further inflamed by the lawman Anund of Skara.
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This reverse roused the worst passions of the president, and he ordered the arrest and imprisonment of all persons suspected of sympathy with the revolutionary cause. Moreover, among the particular passions , appetites and desires there are some whose tendency is as clearly towards the general good as that of others is towards the satisfaction of the self. The threefold division into passions and affections, self-love and benevolence, and conscience, is Butler's celebrated analysis of human nature as found in his first sermon.
But the idea of human nature is not completely expressed by saying that it consists of reason and the several passions. The special relation among the parts of our nature to which Butler alludes is the subordination of the particular passions to the universal principle of reflection or conscience. Man's function is not fulfilled by obeying the passions , or even cool self-love, but by obeying conscience. It would be impossible to pass this judgment if self-love were not regarded as superior in kind to the passions , and this superiority results from the fact that it is the peculiar province of self-love to take a view of the several passions and decide as to their relative importance.
It seems merely to set the stamp of its approbation on certain courses of action to which we are led by the various passions and affections; it has in itself no originating power. Suppose this achieved, we have yet to struggle with single attacks of the passions : irascibility may be cured, but we may succumb to a fit of rage. His method was to choose some Spanish or Italian play, cut out the parts he disliked, and substitute scenes with dialogues in his own way, but he has neither ideals, taste nor education; and, except in Os Maridos Peraltas, his characters are lifeless and their conventional passions are expressed in inflated language.
His chief work is his Cours de litterature dramatique , a series of lectures better described by its second title De l'usage des passions dans le drame. The author examines the passions , discussing the mode in which they are treated in ancient and modern drama, poetry and romance. As a poet, however, he acquired distinction chiefly by the ease, simplicity and grace with which he gave expression to the passions and aspirations of daily life.
The Marian persecution was still fresh in men's minds, and the graphic narrative intensified in its numerous readers the fierce hatred of Spain and of the Inquisition which was one of the master passions of the reign. A desire for glory was one of the most deeply-rooted passions of his nature, and one of the points in which he most strikingly anticipated the humanistic scholars who succeeded him. It was true that the duties of the several relations were being continually violated by the passions of men, and the social state had become an anarchy.
That such a principle must exist in all beings capable of sensation, or of anything analogous to human passions and feelings, will hardly be denied by those who perceive the force of arguments which metaphysically demonstrate the immaterial nature of the mind. In his devotion to science, he had hitherto lived a very regular life, varied only by the excitement of conflict: now, at the height of his fame, other passions began to stir within him. He shared in all the passions of his party, then excluded from power by the resolute will of George III. But as the passions of cooled, as the hatred with which the Puritans had been regarded while their reign was recent gave place to pity, he was less and less harshly treated.
The conflicting passions of love, honour, duty, are here represented as they never had been on a French stage, and in the "strong style" which was Corneille's own. The object of this treatise was to describe the arrangements by which the influence of the mind is propagated to the muscular frame, and to give a rational explanation of the muscular movements which usually accompany the various emotions and passions. Drusus was a man of violent passions , a drunkard and a debauchee, but not entirely devoid of better feelings, as is shown by his undoubtedly sincere grief at the death of Germanicus.
Their descendant had neither Edwards sloth nor Henrys moderation; he was capable of going to almost any lengths in pursuit of the gratification of his ambition, his passions , his resentment or his simple love of self-assertion. She was well equipped in both respects, but human passions spoilt her chance; her heart turned her head.
Against the first of these dangers William was to a great extent able to guard by the exercise of his right of dissolution, so as to appeal to the constituencies, which did not always share in the the passions of their representatives. The third as much less simple; in part a mixture of truth with Byronic affectation, and for the rest and more significantly , as intimating the resolute exercise of extraordinary powers of control over the promptings and passions by which so many capable ambitions have come to grief.
They are useful chiefly as illustrating the ideas and passions of the time, for they give comparatively little information as to facts and that little is peculiarly inaccurate. At no other historical crisis have passions been more fiercely excited; at none have shameless disregard of truth and blind credulity been more common. The immense mass of material has not yet been thoroughly sifted; and the passions of that age still disturb the judgment of the historian.
Freedom in the moral sphere consists simply in the control of the passions by reason. His distinction among moral virtues of the justice that renders others their due from the virtues that control the appetites and passions of the agent himself, represents his interpretation of the Niconiachean Ethics; while his account of these latter virtues is a simple transcript of Aristotle's, just as his division of the non-rational element of the soul into " concupiscible " and " irascible " is the old Platonic one.
More, among others, had imitated Descartes in a discussion of the passions , and Locke's essay had given a still stronger impulse in the same direction; still, Shaftesbury is the first moralist who distinctly takes psychological experience as the basis of ethics. He is convinced that virtue where it is more than a mere pretence is purely artificial; but not quite certain whether it is a useless trammel of appetites and passions that are advantageous to society, or a device creditable to the politicians who introduced it by playing upon the " pride and vanity " of the " silly creature man.
We have, in fact, to distinguish self-love, the " general desire that every man hath of his own happiness " or pleasure, from the particular affections, passions , and appetites directed towards objects other than pleasure, in the satisfaction of which pleasure consists. The identification is slightly qualified in Hutcheson's posthumously published System of Moral Philosophy , in which the general view of Shaftesbury is more fully developed, with several new psychological distinctions, including Butler's, separation of " calm " benevolence - as well as, after Butler, " calm self-love " - from the " turbulent " passions , selfish or social.
On the one hand, he speaks of moral approbation as derived from " humanity and benevolence," while expressly recognizing, after Butler, that there is a strictly disinterested element in our benevolent impulses as also in hunger, thirst, love of fame and other passions. On this point Hume contents himself with the vague remark that " there are a numerous set of passions and sentiments, of which thinking rational beings are by the original constitution of nature the only proper objects.